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What is a print?

Unlike a painting, prints are created through an indirect transfer process. Images are not drawn directly onto paper, but on a surface such as a stone or a metal plate, from which the image can then be printed a number of times.
The transfer occurs when a sheet of paper, placed in contact with this surface, is run through a printing press.

Original prints are referred to by the technique that was used to produce them, such as etching, engraving, lithograph, linocut, monotype, monoprint, woodblock and so on.

Click here to see an interactive demonstration of
how prints are made



Tips for the beginning collector of prints



Caring for your collection

Gravure prints made with etching ink on acid-free etching paper or Japanese washi are among the most permanent works of art available. The pigment in black etching ink is finely ground carbon particles: it never fades. Etching paper is made from cotton fiber, washi from kozo or mulberry fiber, neither of which contain the lingin from wood pulp that causes deterioration of ordinary paper.
Nevertheless, as you develop your collection, make sure you learn to care for it properly, providing a good environment, and safe handling and storage conditions, critical to preserving paper collections.


Handling
When handling prints, always use two hands to lift the paper so that the edges do not get crimped.
Hands should be clean and dry before handling paper items, as the natural body oils from fingers can cause staining on the paper. Better to handle prints using cotton gloves.
Avoid having food or drinks in the area of your collection.

Heat
Never hang or store prints over or next to a radiator or any kind of heat source. Don't hang prints over a fireplace as the combination of heat, soot and smoke can do extensive damage in a very short period of time.

Humidity
High humidity can lead to the development of foxing (small brown disfiguring spots in paper) or mold growth, which grows in excess of 70% relative to humidity. According to museum curators, 50% humidity is ideally suited for keeping fine works of art on paper.

Light
Most paper items are susceptible to damage from ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. UV radiation, which is emitted by the sun and fluorescent bulbs, is particularly damaging to prints. as it fades inks and colors. Fading cannot be stopped by keeping your art in subdued light; oxidation will occur naturally even in the best condition. It is advisable not to hang your prints opposite a window nor expose it to direct sunlight as this will soon fade colors and paper will burn. Also avoid reflecting light as it has ultra-violet rays that can be very harmful to inks and paper.
Taking print out of direct light and putting it in a closet will not restore the color.

Framing
Never frame directly on glass. Before being framed your prints have to be matted using good quality acid free matting. To block harmful light on framed pieces UF-3 plexiglass can be used. If your prints aren't matted, condensation will form, the print will be damaged and ultimately destroyed.
Mats should be changed every few years, especially in humid environments. Good conservation practice protects both the print and its investment value as well.
Many framing shops use acid-emitting adhesives and backing papers to seal the backs of frames. They also often use hard-to-remove glazier's points to squeeze the print tightly into the frame, leaving marks around the edge of the mat window on the print. A much better print conservation practice is not to seal prints in frames permanently, so that the mats can easily be changed every few years. Avoid glue, tape or other adhesives like the plague! Use only wheat paste and rice paper to attach a print to a matte.
Always ensure that there is air circulation behind your print.
Make sure you check for dampness on any outer wall where you are hanging your prints. If there is a lot of water, moisture will seep through and into your prints.
Basements are not the ideal place to hang or store prints.
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Storage
It is best to store paper items flat, rather than folding and unfolding, which can lead to creases and tears but never store or leave prints flat on the floor; get them elevated so that air can circulate underneath and around them.
Never store unmatted prints directly on top of the other, unless an acid free tissue has separated them. Ideally, your prints should be kept in their individual folios with an acid-free tissue on either side of the print, or mat your prints and use and acid-free tissue on top.

If you can have an option of wooden or metal shelving, it is better to opt for the wooden shelves, as metal tends to cause condensation of water over a period of time. Metal is also a greater conductor of heat in case of fire.
Clean and air (remove backing) framed prints every once in a while as dust contains air borne mold spores that can cause deterioration of the prints.

Pollution, Dust, and Pests
Pollutants, such as ozone and fumes from photocopy machines, car exhausts, and heating systems can cause damage to prints which should be protected from dust and dirt. Monitor for evidence of rodents and insects, such as silverfish, book lice and book worms, which can eat, soil and damage paper; good housekeeping and environmental conditions will help reduce the threat of these pests.